Pronouns

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Examples: 
I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun.

For example, you could say "Lisa is a nice girl."
Then you could replace the noun "Lisa" with the word "She" and get the following sentence:
"She is a nice girl."

"She" is a pronoun.

The word "pronoun" comes from "pro" (in the meaning of "substitute") + "noun."

Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them.

Me is a personal pronoun.

Demonstrative Pronouns

"Demonstrative" means "showing, making something clear."

Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those.

Use "this" and "these" to talk about things that are near in space or in time.

Use "that" and "those" to talk about things that are farther away in space or time.
This report
That ship

Example sentence:
This cannot go on.
That was beautiful!
He wanted those, but decided to compromise on these.

Interrogative Pronouns
"Interrogative" means "used in questions."

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc.

Use "who" and "whom" to talk about people.

Use "which" and "what" to talk about animals and things.

Example sentences:
Who is your father?
Whom did you speak to?
Which bag did you buy?
What are my choices?

Possessive Pronouns
"Possessive" means "showing ownership."

Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

My cat

Example sentences:
I've lost my wallet.
He married his girlfriend.
This place is theirs.
Is that cat yours?
My car is slow. Hers is much faster.

Relative Pronouns
"Relative" means "connected with something."

Relative pronouns are pronouns that link different parts of a sentence.
The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.

The cake that I got

Examples sentences:
The girl who called yesterday came to see you.
The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
She lives in Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine.
I really liked the book that you gave me.

Reflexive Pronouns
"Reflexive" means "going back to itself."

Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural).

The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

She hugs herself

  
Example sentences:
He cut himself while shaving.
I sent myself to bed.
He could hurt himself!
We must help ourselves.
She trusts herself.

Intensive Pronouns
"Intensive" means "giving force or emphasis."

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used for emphasis. In other words, Intensive pronouns emphasis the subject of the sentence. They are written exactly the same way as the reflexive nouns, but their function is different.

I made it myself

Example sentences:
I myself baked the cake.
The queen herself recommended this restaurant.
Have you yourself been there?
The project itself wasn't difficult.
We will do it ourselves.

Indefinite Pronouns  
"Indefinite" means "not exact, not limited."

Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to any specific person or thing.

Examples:
Anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.

Every girl is dancing

Example sentences:
Many have died during the war.
Can anyone call her?
Everybody wants to see you.
Something can be done to help.

  Exercises   English Words   English

Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
An antecedent is a word (or a group of words) which a pronoun refers back to.

Examples:
(the antecedent is red and the pronoun is green)
She will buy some water and drink it.
Water is the antecedent of "it."
"It" is a pronoun and it refers back to "water."

Diana left her book at school.
Diana is the antecedent of "her."
"Her" is a pronoun and it refers back to "Diana."

Kevin and Laura are meeting their friends.
The phrase Kevin and Laura is the antecedent of "their."
"Their" is a pronoun and it refers back to "Kevin and Laura."

The word "antecedent" comes from Latin: ante (before) + cedere (to go).

The Importance of Pronouns
Here we can see the great importance of pronouns. If we didn't have pronouns then these sentence would have to be written like this:
She will buy some water and drink the water.

Diana left Diana's book at school.

Kevin and Laura are meeting Kevin and Laura's friends.

The Importance of Antecedents
Read the following sentences and see if you can fully understand them:
They took it.
(Who took it? What did he or she take?)

Ours is with them.
(What is with them? Who is they?)

She bought hers.
(Who is she? What did she buy?)
Do you see what happens?

If there are no antecedents it can be unclear what the speaker or writer is referring to.

Important note:
In many cases the antecedent can be fully clear even without directly mentioning it. In other words, the antecedent can be understood from context.

For example, let's say Jessica and Molly have an annoying neighbor. They always complain about him.

Then when Jessica says to Molly, "Do you know what he did this time?"

It will be fully clear to Molly who Jessica refers to.

Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in three ways:
Person (First person: I/we, second person: you, third person: he/she/it/they)

Correct: Bob did his homework.
Incorrect: Bob did your homework.

Number (singular/plural)

Correct: Bob did his homework.
Incorrect: Bob did their homework.

Gender (masculine/feminine)

Correct: Bob did his homework.
Incorrect: Bob did her homework.

Important note:
In some cases such sentences can be correct. You simply have to use your common sense.

For example, let's say that Bob did Susan's homework, and I am now talking to Susan.

In this case, I can definitely say, "Bob did your homework."
(And I refer to Susan's homework, not to Bob's homework. So in this case the antecedent is Susan, not Bob!)

Determining the correct pronoun to use is usually pretty straightforward.

Some cases, however, can seem more challenging.

So here are some more correct and incorrect examples:
Correct: Every boy will start his test.
Incorrect: Every boy will start their test.

Correct: The box of toys is in its place.
Incorrect: The box of toys is in their place.

Correct: Both lost their jobs.
Incorrect: Both lost his jobs.

Correct: Alice and Kate talked with their father.
Incorrect: Alice and Kate talked with her father.

Correct: The United States opened its borders.
Incorrect: The United States opened their borders.

Examples sentences: 

He doesn't want go with them.
Would they help us?
His house is bigger than ours.
Who is she?