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An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even the entire sentence.
An adverb can describe a verb:
She runs quickly.

An adverb can describe an adjective:
She is so beautiful.

An adverb can describe another adverb:
She smokes very rarely.

An adverb can describe an entire sentence:
Naturally, you don't have to come.

The word "adverb" comes for the Latin ad- (in addition) and verbum (word).

In many cases (but not always!) adverbs have the following form:
Adjective + "-ly"

Quick + ly = quickly
Strange + ly = strangely
Dead + ly = deadly
Sudden + ly = suddenly
Clever + ly = cleverly
Brave + ly = bravely
Real + ly = really

When an adjective ends with "y" replace the "y" with an "i":
Heavy + ly = heavi + ly = heavily
Happy + ly = happi + ly = happily

When the adjective ends with an "e" drop the "e":
True + ly = tru + ly = truly
However, there are many adverbs that do not end in "-ly":
Fast, very, hard, home, just, too, well, never, sometimes, and so forth.

We can divided English adverbs into several categories:
Adverbs of degree, adverbs of manner, adverbs of place,
adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of duration,
adverbs of probability, comparative adverbs and superlative adverbs.

Adverbs of degree
Adverbs of degree show us the strength or degree of the action or state. They answer the following questions:
How much? To what degree?

Very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.

Example sentences:
He is very concerned with you.
You are totally right.
We almost made it to the train.

Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner show us the way the action is done. They answer the following question:

Well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.

Example sentences:
He handled the situation well.
She listened secretly to their conversation.
The children ran happily to their father.

Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place show us the location of the action or state. They answer the following question:

Home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.

Example sentences:
We are here.
He went home.
We found him outside.
She looked up.

Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time show us the time of the action or state. They answer the following question:

Now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.

Example sentence:
Let's talk now.
I will do it later.
He promised to write back soon.
What are you doing tomorrow?
We haven't met before.

Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency show us the frequency of the action or state. They answer the following question:
How often?

Always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.

Example sentences:
I always brush my teeth after a meal.
We often meet and chat.
He is usually here on time.

Adverbs of duration
Adverbs of duration show us the length of the action or state.
They answer the following question:
For how long?

Forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.

Example sentence:
He works there temporarily.
We spoke briefly.
I will be forever grateful.

Adverbs of probability
Adverbs of probability show us the chances for the action or state to happen. They answer the following question:
How likely?

Certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.

Example sentences:
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we'll come after all.
It will probably not work.
Surely you are not serious!

Comparative adverbs
"Comparative" means "comparing something to something else."

Comparative adverbs show us which action or state is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so forth.

more, less, better, worse, faster, slower, farther, closer.

Example sentences:
Maggie works out more seriously than Donna.
She eats less than her friends.
You are better than this.
We couldn't go slower even if we wanted to.
Let's get closer.

Superlative adverbs
"Superlative" means "of the highest degree."

Superlative adverbs show us which action or state is the best, the strongest, and so forth.

Best, most, least, worst, strongest, fastest, slowest.

Example sentences:
He knows best.
It was the most boring experience.
He shouted the strongest so he won.
He ran the slowest so he lost.

Examples sentences: 

Where? Home. ("I went home.")
When? Yesterday. ("We met yesterday.")
Adverbs usually answer the following questions:

How? Slowly. ("The turtle moves slowly.")
How often? Sometimes. ("Sometimes it stops responding.")
How long? Temporally. (She stays with us temporally.")
How likely? Surely. (Our team will surely win!")
To what degree? Very. ("She was very pleased.")